AH Formatter V5
Last updated: Mar 18, 2014
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V5Hyphenation Support

The former "Hyphenation Option" is now a standard part of AH Formatter V5.3. The standard hyphenation function integrates the very powerful hyphenation algorithms from Computer Hyphenation Ltd., which enhances the quality of hyphenation and greatly simplifies setting up Formatter to hyphenate over 40 different languages.

For additional information please visit Computer Hyphenation's website.

The main specification of XSL Formatter hyphenation function is as follows. Please refer to Hyphenation Dictionary Online Manual for more details.

Merits:

  • It is not necessary to prepare a dictionary for every language. It can correspond to 40 or more languages only as this standard function.
  • The standard function also supports hyphenation which includes spelling changes when a hyphen is placed.
  • Since the processing of reading a hyphenation dictionary is not necessary, processing time is shortened somewhat.

Notes:

  • The standard hyphenation function is not supported with XSL Formatter V3. Please prepare the Hyphenation Option separately.

Languages

AH Formatter V5.3 supports the following languages.

Code Language Characters
af afr Afrikaans Latin characters and Apostrophe
bg bul Bulgarian Cyrillic characters
ca cat Catalan Latin characters and Apostrophe and Decimal point (Full stop or Middle dot)
cs ces Czech Latin characters
cy cym Welsh Latin characters and Apostrophe
da dan Danish Latin characters and Apostrophe
de deu German / Swiss German Latin characters and Apostrophe
el ell Greek Greek characters
en eng English Latin characters and Apostrophe
en-US eng-US American Latin characters and Apostrophe
eo epo Esperanto Latin characters
es spa Spanish Latin characters
et est Estonian Latin characters
eu eus Basque Latin characters
fi fin Finnish Latin characters
fr fra French / Canadian French Latin characters and Apostrophe
ga gle Irish (Erse or Gaelic) Latin characters and Apostrophe
hr hrv Croatian Cyrillic characters or Latin characters
hu hun Hungarian Latin characters
id ind Indonesian Latin characters and Apostrophe and Digit 2
is isl Icelandic Latin characters
it ita Italian Latin characters and Apostrophe
la lat Latin Latin characters
lt lit Lithuanian Latin characters
lv lav Latvian Latin characters
ms msa Bahasa Malay Latin characters and Apostrophe and Digit 2
mt mlt Maltese Latin characters and Apostrophe
nl nld Dutch / Flemish Latin characters and Apostrophe
no nor Norwegian Latin characters and Apostrophe
pl pol Polish Latin characters
pt por Portuguese / Brazilian Latin characters
ro ron Romanian / Moldavian Latin characters and Apostrophe
ru rus Russian Cyrillic characters
sk slk Slovak Latin characters and Apostrophe
sl slv Slovenian Latin characters and Apostrophe
sr srp Serbian Cyrillic characters or Latin characters
sv swe Swedish Latin characters and Apostrophe
sw swa Swahili Latin characters and Apostrophe
tr tur Turkish Latin characters
uk ukr Ukrainian Cyrillic characters

Example

To use Czech hyphenation the following is placed in the fo file:

<fo:block hyphenate="true" language="ces">
Všichni lidé rodí se svobodní a sobě rovní co do důstojnosti a práv. Jsou nadáni rozumem a svědomím a mají spolu jednat v duchu bratrství.
</fo:block>

When country code is specified like lang="nl-BE", country codes other than "en-US" are ignored.

Exception Dictionary

It's not necessary to prepare the dictionary with AH Formatter V5.3. However, there may be a case that you want to treat the unexpected hyphened words as exceptions. In such case, it is possible to register the words in the exception dictionary.

The exception dictionary is stored in the hyphenation folder in the AH Formatter V5.3 installation folder or in the folder where the AXF4_HYPDIC_PATH environment variable indicates. The name of the dictionary file conforms to the following rules, which is same as TeX dictionary.

  • The file name is made from the Language Tag defined in RFC1766. To make a file name a hyphen is changed to an under bar and the ".xml" extension is added. The Language Tag is made by joining the language code of ISO639 and the country code of ISO3166 with a hyphen. Sometimes it consists of only the language code. Please be sure that an under bar used in the file name and not a hyphen.
  • The language code should be specified by 2-letter code when it exists, and if not, specify it by Terminology code. Also specify the country code by 2-letter code when it exists.

For example: de.xml, en_GB.xml

The following shows the content of exception dictionary.

Element Location Description
<hyphenation-info> root element
<hyphen-char> child of <hyphenation-info> The element that indicates the hyphenation character alternative to <hyphen/> in the exception element. Hyphenation character is expressed by the value attribute. The initial value is "-"(U+002D).
<exceptions> child of <hyphenation-info> A data of exception dictionary. The text of the exception element is a collection of hyphened words divided by white space. The hyphen information is indicated by the hyphen element, however the character specified by the hyphen-char element can also be used.
<hyphen> child of <exceptions> A full functional hyphen equivalent to TeX's \discretionary. Hyphen element has the pre, post and no attributes. The pre attribute indicates the strings inserted before the hyphenation character when a hyphenation break occurs, The post attribute indicates the strings inserted after the hyphenation character when a hyphenation break occurs, the no attribute indicates the strings appearing when a hyphenation break does not occur. Hyphen element is used when the spelling changes when a hyphenation break occurs.
<non-eol-words> child of <hyphenation-info> Specifies non-end-of-line words by dividing with white space. The word specified here is adjusted not to placed at the end of line, however in some case it's inevitable. The non-end-of-line process is effective all the time, independent of the hypenate property in FO.

The DTD of Exception Dictionary is simple as follows:

<!ELEMENT hyphenation-info (hyphen-char?, exceptions?, non-eol-words?) >

<!ELEMENT hyphen-char EMPTY >
<!ATTLIST hyphen-char value CDATA #REQUIRED >

<!ELEMENT exceptions (#PCDATA|hyphen)* >

<!ELEMENT hyphen EMPTY >
<!ATTLIST hyphen pre  CDATA #IMPLIED
                 no   CDATA #IMPLIED
                 post CDATA #IMPLIED >

<!ELEMENT non-eol-words #PCDATA >

Suppose the followning exceation dictionary is prepared.

<hyphenation-info>
<exceptions>
ta-ble
present
ba<hyphen pre="k" no="c"/>ken
</exceptions>
</hyphenation-info>

The word table has a posobility of being hyphened only as ta-ble, the word present never be hyphened. The word backen is hyphened as bak-ken. And ta<hyphen/>ble is quite equivalent for ta-ble in this example.

Possible to specify the hyphenation by the hyphen element that change the spelling of the word.

Settings for Exception Dictionary Word Hyphenation
ab<hyphen/>def abdef ab-def
ab<hyphen no="c"/>def abcdef ab-def
ab<hyphen pre="x"/>def abdef abx-def
ab<hyphen pre="x" no="c"/>def abcdef abx-def
ab<hyphen post="z"/>def abdef ab-zdef
ab<hyphen no="c" post="z"/>def abcdef ab-zdef
ab<hyphen pre="x" post="z"/>def abdef abx-zdef
ab<hyphen pre="x" no="c" post="z"/>def abcdef abx-zdef

TeX Dictionary

It's also available to do hyphnate using the TeX dictionary with AH Formatter V5.3. To hyphenate by Tex dictionary, it's necessary to specify HyphenationOption="false" in the Option Setting File. Dictionaries will be required for all the necessary languages. Dictionaries are XML files that are the same format as FOP. See also the Apache Website. Only the hyphenation dictionary for English(en.xml) is ready and provided with AH Formatter V5.3.

Dictionary Name and Location

Hyphenation Dictionaries are stored in the "hyphenation" folder where AH Formatter V5.3 is installed. The file name of Hyphenation Dictionary follows the rules shown below.

  • The file name is made from the Language Tag defined in RFC1766. To make a file name a hyphen is changed to an under bar and the ".xml" extension is added. The Language Tag is made by joining the 2 letter language code of ISO639 and the country code of ISO3166 with a hyphen. Sometimes it consists of only the language code. Please be sure that an under bar used in the file name and not a hyphen.

For example : de.xml, en_GB.xml The 3 letter language code in FO is converted to the 2 letter language code automatically. When the country code is also specified in the language setting as below, first the hyphenation dictionary en_GB.xml is detected, then if it's not found, the hyphenation dictionary en.xml is detected. In this case the country code is ignored.

<fo:block hyphenate="true" xml:lang="en-GB">

Contents of Hyphenation Dictionary

The contents of Hyphenation Dictionary are defined in the hyphenation.dtd. hyphenation.dtd is included in FOP distribution. In AH Formatter V5.3, it is installed in the hyphenation folder where AH Formatter V5.3 is installed. Below is a brief explanation of the DTD. Refer to hyphenation.dtd for more details.

Element Location Description
<hyphenation-info> root element
<hyphen-char> child of <hyphenation-info> This element expresses hyphenation characters in the exception dictionary data. Hyphenation character is expressed by the value attribute. Initial value is "-" (U+002D). But the hyphenation characters in the actual formatted result are given by the hyphenation-character property in the XSL specification.
<hyphen-min> child of <hyphenation-info> When hyphenation break occurs, before and after attributes give the minimum number of characters in a hyphenated word before or after the hyphenation character. Before attribute is mapped to XSL hyphenation-remain-character-count property, after is mapped to XSL hyphenation-push-character-count. AH Formatter V5.3 uses these properties and the hyphen-min element in the dictionary is ignored.
<classes> child of <hyphenation-info> Defined as character equivalent class. Text of classes' element is white space-separated list of character groups, all characters in a group are to be treated equivalent. Actually each group consists of lowercase and uppercase characters. Following is a sample of English dictionary (en.xml).
aA bB cC dD eE fF gG hH iI jJ kK lL mM nN oO pP qQ rR sS tT uU vV wW xX yY zZ
<pattern> child of <hyphenation-info> The hyphenation patterns, space separated. A pattern consists of character and digits. Character is the beginning characters of classes groups.(normally lowercase). Digits between characters indicate the strength of hyphenation potential (hyphenation value).
<exceptions> child of <hyphenation-info> Data of hyphenation exception dictionary. Text of exceptions element consists of space-separated list of hyphenated words. A hyphen is indicated by the hyphen element, but you can use character defined in hyphen-char element. Exceptions element is used when hyphenation points determined by hyphenation-pattern dictionary are not appropriate or you want to use special hyphenation patterns of your own.
<hyphen> child of <exceptions> A full functional hyphen equivalent to TeX's \discretionary. Hyphen element has the pre, post and no attributes. The pre attribute indicates the strings inserted before the hyphenation character when a hyphenation break occurs, The post attribute indicates the strings inserted after the hyphenation character when a hyphenation break occurs, the no attribute indicates the strings appearing when a hyphenation break does not occur. Hyphen element is used when the spelling changes when a hyphenation break occurs.

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