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Q.  I specified padding-before="xx%" as follows because I thought that the value of padding-before became a ratio to the height of fo:table-cell, however the result seems to be different from my forecast. How does XSL Formatter calculate it?
    <fo:table-cell padding-before="1%">

In 7.29.15 "padding" of the W3C Recommendation, it is described as follows:

CSS2 Definition:

Value: <padding-width>{1,4} | inherit
Initial: not defined for shorthand properties
Applies to: all elements
Inherited: no
Percentages: refer to width of containing block
Media: visual

"Percentages" of padding-before is a ratio to the width of the containing block according to this description. However, you can specify the ratio to the height of fo:table-cell by specifying from-nearest-specified-value as follows:

<fo:table-cell padding-before="from-nearest-specified-value(height) * 0.01">

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